Gutian Dynasty of Sumer was a dynasty that ruled Mesopotamia between ca. 2135–2055 BC subsequent to taking the place of Akkadian lineage.
Guti people, also called as Kuti or Guteans, were a people from Mesopotamia and Zagros Mountains who ruled over Sumer for nearly a century.
Since Gutian language seems to be unwritten, for data corcerning with the Guteans, researchers must depend on outside – frequently profoundly one-sided writings created by their foes. The Sumerians used to label Gutis as barbarians who did not know the kingship.
Gutians are traditionally viewed as the procursors of the Kurdish people. Numerous scholars support this theory.
Guti is now also a Kurdish mountain name. The name of Mount Judi (Cûdî) is thought to be corrupted version of Guti. Since Arabic language the lingua franca of Islamic World lacks g sound, a lot of Kurdish geographical names adopted j<d͡ʒ> or /k/ sounds instead of /g/ .
Gutium, Land of Gutis
Gutium (Akkadian: Kuti-im, Assyrian: Qutium) refers to the homeland of Gutian people.
It’s location has changed throughout history, identifying regions that were not under the control of the respective Mesopotamian rulers. In this respect, exact position and boundaries are not defined by sciencist, but it is understood as a synonym for mountains of a migratory people. Others -generally western media- see Gutium or associate it with Kurdistan.
In the abstract, Kurdish highland split up between today’s Iran and Iraq is considered as the original settlement area of Guteans. Some sources even mention Gutium and Kurdistan interchangeably. For instance: “Under Cyrus the Great of Persia Gobryas I is counted as governor of Kurdistan (Kutium).”
Gutians appeared on the historical arena at the end of the XXIII century BC. By this time, the Gutians had reached a fairly significant political force and began to invade the territory of Southern Mesopotamia where a powerful Akkadian kingdom was in rule.
Around 2200 BC, Erridupizir the supreme leader of the Gutis, defeated the Akkadian king Naram-Sin, managed to seize the city of Nippur and took the royal title. At his order, the scribes of Sippar carved an inscription in honor of his victories, which has been preserved to this day. But in the following years, the Akkadians successfully fought off the invasions of the highlanders.
The two successors of Erridupizir suffered serious defeats from the Akkadians. And the next king, Sarlagab, was even captured by the Akkadian king Sharkalisharri. However, when Sharkalisharri died, the Kutians again began to gain one victory after another and soon managed to take possession of almost all of Mesopotamia.
The Sumerian and Semitic inscriptions of that time eloquently describe the disasters caused by the unfortunate and devastated country. So, in one inscription there is a long list of cities (Akkad, Akshak, Hursang-kalam, Der, Nippur, Adab, Larak and many others), “whose daughters cry because of the Gutians”. And in the Sumerian hymn to the god Ninib, the Gutis’ cruelties are described:
The country is in the hands of cruel enemies.
The gods are taken captive.
The population is burdened by duties and taxes.
Channels and channels launched.
The tiger has ceased to be navigable.
Fields are not irrigated.
Fields do not yield.
Lagash which lies somewhat away from the main path of their raids and perhaps Uruk and Ur, protected by a swamp strip, did not suffer from them so much.
Gutians ruled over Mesopotamia for ca. 90 years (during this time 20 kings were replaced). However, it is known that the first 50 years of their rule coincide with the last years of Akkad. The information about this time is very scarce, since the Gutis practically left no written sources. In general, it appears to be an era of political instability and cultural stagnation. It is impossible to determine the influence of this people on Mesopotamian civilization.
Rulers in Chronological Order
- Erridupizir – 2141–2138 BC
- Imta or Nibia – 2138–2135 BC
- Inkishush – 2135–2129 BC
- Sarlagab – 2129–2126 BC
- Shulme – 2126–2120 BC
- Elulmesh or Silulumesh – 2120–2114 BC
- Inimabakesh – 2114–2109 BC
- Igeshaush or Igeaus – 2109–2103 BC
- Yarlagab or Yarla – 2103–2088 BC
- Ibate – 2088–2085 BC
- Yarlangab or Yarla – 2085–2082 BC
- Kurum – 2082–2081 BC
- Apil-kin or Habilkin – 2081–2078 BC
- La-erabum or Lasirab – 2078–2076 BC
- Irarum – 2076–2074 BC
- Ibranum – 2074–2073 BC
- Hablum – 2073–2071 BC
- Puzur-Suen – 2071–2064 BC
- Yarlaganda – 2064–2057 BC
- Si-um – 2057–2050 BC
- Tirigan – 2050–2050 BC
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